REFERENCING CHEAT SHEET

HARVARD REFERENCING SYSTEM

To help you with your studies, we have compiled this referencing cheat sheet. Click on a reference source below to see in-text citation and reference list examples.

CiteMaker.com is a useful Harvard reference generator.

BSAVA Textbook of Veterinary Nursing (& Other textbooks with Editors and chapters written by different Authors)

This textbook has many different authors for each different chapter, and overall editors for the book.

The editors are listed on the front cover and the authors are listed under each chapter title in both the index and the first page of each chapter.

This can make it a little confusing to reference, so we have given you multiple examples of each type you may need, depending on the chapter you are using.

Reference List Note:
For each chapter you use, you must include a reference as the authors vary depending on chapters. The chapter authors are whom you reference to, and the edits appear after the actual textbook name.

Chapters with one author only

(Chapters 2, 4, 11, & 19)

In-Text Citation:

When writing factual information:

Clicker training is a useful training tool that uses both classical and operant conditioning (Shepherd 2011, p.263).

When using the author name in your text:

Shepherd (2011) describes counter-conditioning as the creation of new positive experiences linked to something that previously caused fear (p.262).

or

Shepherd (2011, p.262) describes counter-conditioning as the creation of new positive experiences linked to something that previously caused fear.

Reference List entry:

Shepherd, K 2011, ‘Small animal behaviour and training’ In BSAVA Textbook of Veterinary Nursing. 5th ed. Cooper, B, Mullineaux, E, and Turner, L. eds. United Kingdom: BSAVA.

Chapters with two authors

(Chapters 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 25 & 27)

In-Text Citation:

When writing factual information:

Many people enhance their verbal communication by the use hands gestures but this can be distracting to clients if it is too embellished (Gray & Clarke 2011, p.207).

When using the author names as part of the sentence:

Many people enhance their verbal communication by the use hands gestures but according to Gray and Clarke (2011, p.207) this can be distracting to clients if it is too embellished.

Reference List entry:

Gray, C and Clarke, C 2011, ‘Client communication and practice organization’ In BSAVA Textbook of Veterinary Nursing. 5th ed. Cooper, B, Mullineaux, E, and Turner, L. eds. United Kingdom: BSAVA.

Chapters with three or more authors

(Chapters 1, 5, 7, 8, 10, 13, 18, 22, 24, & 26)

In-Text Citation:

When there are three or more authors for the chapter you have used, the first time you reference them, you list all authors:

When restraining a cat for a simple physical examination, you should hold it in such as way that the cat cannot back away. You can achieve this by holding the body close to you and having a firm but gentle hold around the front legs (Atkinson, Devaney, & Girling 2011, p. 233).

Then the second and subsequent times you need to reference the same authors later in your assessment, you can shorten it like this:

Uncooperative cats can be restrained with the use of a large towel to be wrapped around them, if a cat bag is not available (Atkinson et al. 2011, p.236).

Reference List entry:

Atkinson, T, Devaney, J, and Girling, S 2011, ‘Animal handling, restraint and transport’ In BSAVA Textbook of Veterinary Nursing. 5th ed. Cooper, B, Mullineaux, E, and Turner, L. eds. United Kingdom: BSAVA.

Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology

This book has two authors. The last chapter (on Horses) however has different authors, so you would apply the rules explained for BSAVA.

In-Text Citation:

If summarising or writing the information in a factual way and not referring to the authors as part of your sentence:

Bone is capable of remodelling and repairing itself when injury occurs as it is a living tissue (Aspinall & Cappello 2009, p.19).

Reference List entry:

When taking material from multiple chapters of the Learner’s Guide (this is generally when the assessment is from the same subject):

Aspinall, V and Cappello, M 2009, Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology. UK: Butterworth Heinemann.

When only taking material from one chapter of the Learner’s Guide (for instance if you use a different subject Learner’s Guide to support an assessment in your current subject):

Aspinall, V and Cappello, M 2009, ‘Tissues and body cavities’ in Introduction to Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology. UK: Butterworth Heinemann.

Learner’s Guides

Learner’s Guides should be referenced to the Author of the Subject (on the first page) unless it is a replicated chapter from a textbook, in which case you reference the Textbook and Author (as below).

In-Text Citation:

If summarising or writing the information in a factual way and not referring to the authors as part of your sentence (Phillips 2012, p.x). x = page number

You must adjust your restraint technique to suit the different animals as they all require different techniques (Phillips 2012, p.6).

If referring to something discussed over several pages but you have summarised, then:

…(Phillips 2012, p.6-8).

If referring to something as stated by the author or the opinion, or you use the author’s name as part of a sentence:

As discussed by Phillips (2012, p.15) there are many pieces of equipment available and the most common is a slip lead.

Reference List entry:

When taking material from multiple chapters of the Learner’s Guide (this is generally when the assessment is from the same subject):

Phillips, H 2012, Animal Handling Techniques. Melbourne: Veterinary Nurse Solutions.

When only taking material from one chapter of the Learner’s Guide (for instance if you use a different subject Learner’s Guide to support an assessment in your current subject):

Phillips, H 2012, Animal Handling Techniques: ‘Topic 1: Restraint’. Melbourne: Veterinary Nurse Solutions.

Textbooks – 1 Author

When using a textbook that has a single AUTHOR (not an editor with all the chapters written by different people like BSAVA does).

This example uses ‘Low Stress Handling, Restraint & Behaviour Modification of Dogs & Cats’ by Dr Sophia Yin – chapter excerpts in Animal Handling Techniques Subject.

In-Text Citation:

Factual writing:

When removing a dog from their kennel you need to stand at the door side on, facing the door hinge (Yin 2009, p.160).

Stated by or opinion:

In her Low Stress Book, Dr Yin (2009, p.160) recommends that you stand side on facing the door hinge when removing a dog from a run.

If you feel this reference detracts from the flow of your sentence, you can write it like this:

In her Low Stress Book, Dr Yin (2009) recommends that you stand side on facing the door hinge when removing a dog from a run (p.160).

Reference List entry:

Where in your assessment you have used information from TWO or more chapters. Note the book title is in italics:

Yin, S 2009, Low Stress Handling, Restraint & Behaviour Modification of Dogs & Cats. USA: Cattle Dog Publishing.

Where you have taken information from ONE chapter only, place the chapter title in your reference list in ‘quotation marks’ and then the book title in italics:

Yin, S 2009, ‘Moving a Dog around the Facility’ in Low Stress Handling, Restraint & Behaviour Modification of Dogs & Cats. USA: Cattle Dog Publishing

Textbooks – 2 Authors

This example uses ‘Animal Biology & Care’ by Sue Dallas and Emily Jewell.

In-Text Citation:

Factual writing:

Turtles that are housed outdoors may suffer from fly infestations in summer (Dallas and Jewell 2014, p.161).

Stated by or opinion:

Dallas and Jewell (2014, p.161) inform us that turtles that are housed outdoors may be subject to fly infestations in summer.

If you feel this reference detracts from the flow of your sentence, you can write it like this:

Dallas and Jewell (2014) inform us that turtles that are housed outdoors may be subject to fly infestations in summer (p.161).

Reference List entry:

Where in your assessment you have used information from TWO or more chapters. Note the book title is in italics:

Dallas S and Jewell, E 2014, Animal Biology & Care. United Kingdom: Wiley Blackwell.

Where you have taken information from ONE chapter only, place the chapter title in your reference list in ‘quotation marks’ and then the book title in italics:

Dallas S and Jewell, E 2014, ‘Parasitology’ in Animal Biology & Care. United Kingdom: Wiley Blackwell

Textbooks – 3+ Authors

This example uses ‘Animal Restraint for Veterinary Professionals’ by CC Sheldon, Teresa Sonsthagen and James A. Topel.

In-Text Citation:

When there are three or more authors, the first time you reference them, you list all authors:

When restraining a dog for a rectal examination, you can grasp the tail near the base instead of placing your hands between the back legs unless the vet wishes to hold the tail himself or herself, then you should support the dog by placing your arms under the leg (Sheldon, Sonsthagen & Topel, 2006, p. 73).

Then the second and subsequent times you need to reference the same authors later in your assessment, you can shorten it like this:

A slip lead, also called a rope leash, is generally made of nylon rope and has a ‘noose’ like loop on one end and a handle on the other (Sheldon, et al., 2006, p. 101).

Reference List entry:

Where in your assessment you have used information from TWO or more chapters. Note the book title is in italics:

Sheldon, C, Sonsthagen, T and Topel, J 2006, Animal Restraint for Veterinary Professionals. USA: Mosby Elsevier

Where you have taken information from ONE chapter only, place the chapter title in your reference list in ‘quotation marks’ and then the book title in italics:

Sheldon, C, Sonsthagen, T and Topel, J 2006, ‘Restraint of Dogs’ in Animal Restraint for Veterinary Professionals. USA: Mosby Elsevier

Journal Article – 1 Author
In-Text Citation:

When the article has only one author:

Catheter complications are common but can be minimised with care. All catheter materials have the potential to cause inflammation within the blood vessel (Reiser 2009, p.1).

Reference List entry:

Reiser, T 2009, ‘Complications of Intravenous Catheterisation’. International Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Symposium. USA: VECCS

*This is from conference proceedings so there is no volume number or page numbers.

Journal Article – 2 Authors
In-Text Citation:

When a journal article has two authors, you list them both each time:

More than just the mentor’s professional knowledge and skill level goes into a successful mentor-mentee relationship. Their attitude and communication skill also plays an important role in the learning process (Andrews & Roberts 2003, p.477).

Reference List entry:

Andrews, M, and Roberts, D 2003, Supporting student nurses learning in and through clinical practice: the role of the clinical guide. Nurse Education Today. 23:7, pp.474-481.

Note, the Journal name is in italics, the article title is listed first in ‘quotation marks’. The volume and issue number is listed along with the page numbers last.

Journal Article – 3 Authors
In-Text Citation:

When there are three or more authors, the first time you reference them, you list all authors:

Many veterinary nurses do not follow the recommended contact time and dilutions of antiseptics for surgery however there seems to be no statistically significant differences in efficacy (Evans, Knowles, Werrett & Holt 2009, p.464).

Then the second and subsequent times you need to reference the same authors later in your assessment, you can shorten it like this:

Some clinics use dilute concentrations of antiseptic and do not compensate by increasing the scrub time (Evans et al. 2009 p. 462).

Reference List entry:

Evans, L Knowles, T, Werrett, G and Holt P 2009, ‘The efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate in canine skin preparation – practice survey and clinical trials’ Journal of Small Animal Practice. 50: pp. 458–465.

Note, the Journal name is in italics, the article title is listed first in ‘quotation marks’. The volume and issue number is listed along with the page numbers last.

Website – with Author/s
In-Text Citation:

Website article and amount of authors follows the same rules as textbooks and journal articles:

When a clinic has a high turnover of staff, it may be time to look at staff evaluation processes, training, and remuneration plans (Tumblin & Materni 2013).

Note, there is no page number as this is online.

Reference List entry:

Tumblin, D & Materni, C 2013, 3 bad spending habits of veterinary practice owners and managers, dvm360, date viewed: 20 December 2013, < http://veterinarybusiness.dvm360.com/vetec/Veterinary+business/3-bad-spending-habits-of-veterinary-practice-owner/ArticleStandard/Article/detail/829731?contextCategoryId=46659>

Website – No Authors
In-Text Citation:

Instead of listing an author, list the website name:

As described by the Veterinary Information Network (2011), there are two types of disease that can afflict the intervertebral disk.

After surgery, it is a good idea to elicit a withdraw reflex, which makes the dog aware of the feet (Veterinary Information Network 2011).

Reference List entry:

Intervertebral Disk Disease 2011, Veterinary Partner, viewed 20 December 2013, < http://www.veterinarypartner.com/Content.plx?P=PRINT&A=3215>